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Despite this, many people don't have a good understanding of the anatomy of the eye, how vision works, and health problems that can affect the eye.

Read on for a basic description and explanation of the structure anatomy of your eyes and how they work function to help you see clearly and interact with your world.

Light is focused primarily by the cornea — the clear front surface of the eye, which acts like a camera lens. The iris of the eye functions like the diaphragm of a camera, controlling the amount of light reaching the back of the eye by automatically adjusting the size of the pupil aperture.

The eye's crystalline lens is located directly behind the pupil and further focuses light. Through a process called accommodation, this lens helps the eye automatically focus on near and approaching objects, like an autofocus camera lens.

Light focused by the cornea and crystalline lens and limited by the iris and pupil then reaches the retina — the light-sensitive inner lining of the back of the eye.

The retina acts like an electronic image sensor of a digital camera, converting optical images into electronic signals.

The optic nerve then transmits these signals to the visual cortex — the part of the brain that controls our sense of sight.

Conjunctiva Of The Eye. The Uvea Of The Eye. Some arthropods, including many Strepsiptera , have compound eyes of only a few facets, each with a retina capable of creating an image, creating vision.

With each eye viewing a different thing, a fused image from all the eyes is produced in the brain, providing very different, high-resolution images.

Possessing detailed hyperspectral colour vision, the Mantis shrimp has been reported to have the world's most complex colour vision system.

They used clear calcite crystals to form the lenses of their eyes. In this, they differ from most other arthropods, which have soft eyes.

The number of lenses in such an eye varied; however, some trilobites had only one, and some had thousands of lenses in one eye.

In contrast to compound eyes, simple eyes are those that have a single lens. For example, jumping spiders have a large pair of simple eyes with a narrow field of view , supported by an array of other, smaller eyes for peripheral vision.

Some insect larvae , like caterpillars , have a different type of simple eye stemmata which usually provides only a rough image, but as in sawfly larvae can possess resolving powers of 4 degrees of arc, be polarization-sensitive and capable of increasing its absolute sensitivity at night by a factor of 1, or more.

They do have photosensitive cells, but no lens and no other means of projecting an image onto these cells.

They can distinguish between light and dark, but no more. This enables snails to keep out of direct sunlight.

In organisms dwelling near deep-sea vents , compound eyes have been secondarily simplified and adapted to spot the infra-red light produced by the hot vents—in this way the bearers can spot hot springs and avoid being boiled alive.

There are ten different eye layouts—indeed every technological method of capturing an optical image commonly used by human beings, with the exceptions of zoom and Fresnel lenses , occur in nature.

Indeed, any eye type can be adapted for almost any behaviour or environment. Also, superposition eyes can achieve greater sensitivity than apposition eyes , so are better suited to dark-dwelling creatures.

These two groups are not monophyletic; the cnidaria also possess cilliated cells, [11] and some gastropods , [12] as well as some annelids possess both.

Simple eyes are rather ubiquitous, and lens-bearing eyes have evolved at least seven times in vertebrates , cephalopods , annelids , crustaceans and cubozoa.

Pit eyes, also known as stemma , are eye-spots which may be set into a pit to reduce the angles of light that enters and affects the eye-spot, to allow the organism to deduce the angle of incoming light.

Pit vipers have developed pits that function as eyes by sensing thermal infra-red radiation, in addition to their optical wavelength eyes like those of other vertebrates see infrared sensing in snakes.

However, pit organs are fitted with receptors rather different to photoreceptors, namely a specific transient receptor potential channel TRP channels called TRPV1.

The main difference is that photoreceptors are G-protein coupled receptors but TRP are ion channels. The resolution of pit eyes can be greatly improved by incorporating a material with a higher refractive index to form a lens, which may greatly reduce the blur radius encountered—hence increasing the resolution obtainable.

A far sharper image can be obtained using materials with a high refractive index, decreasing to the edges; this decreases the focal length and thus allows a sharp image to form on the retina.

Heterogeneous eyes have evolved at least nine times: four or more times in gastropods , once in the copepods , once in the annelids , once in the cephalopods , [1] and once in the chitons , which have aragonite lenses.

This eye creates an image that is sharp enough that motion of the eye can cause significant blurring. To minimise the effect of eye motion while the animal moves, most such eyes have stabilising eye muscles.

The ocelli of insects bear a simple lens, but their focal point always lies behind the retina; consequently, they can never form a sharp image.

Ocelli pit-type eyes of arthropods blur the image across the whole retina, and are consequently excellent at responding to rapid changes in light intensity across the whole visual field; this fast response is further accelerated by the large nerve bundles which rush the information to the brain.

Some marine organisms bear more than one lens; for instance the copepod Pontella has three. The outer has a parabolic surface, countering the effects of spherical aberration while allowing a sharp image to be formed.

Another copepod, Copilia , has two lenses in each eye, arranged like those in a telescope. In the eyes of most mammals , birds , reptiles, and most other terrestrial vertebrates along with spiders and some insect larvae the vitreous fluid has a higher refractive index than the air.

Spherical lenses produce spherical aberration. In refractive corneas, the lens tissue is corrected with inhomogeneous lens material see Luneburg lens , or with an aspheric shape.

Thus, animals that have evolved with a wide field-of-view often have eyes that make use of an inhomogeneous lens. As mentioned above, a refractive cornea is only useful out of water.

In water, there is little difference in refractive index between the vitreous fluid and the surrounding water. Hence creatures that have returned to the water—penguins and seals, for example—lose their highly curved cornea and return to lens-based vision.

An alternative solution, borne by some divers, is to have a very strongly focusing cornea. An alternative to a lens is to line the inside of the eye with "mirrors", and reflect the image to focus at a central point.

Many small organisms such as rotifers , copepods and flatworms use such organs, but these are too small to produce usable images. The scallop Pecten has up to millimetre-scale reflector eyes fringing the edge of its shell.

It detects moving objects as they pass successive lenses. There is at least one vertebrate, the spookfish , whose eyes include reflective optics for focusing of light.

Each of the two eyes of a spookfish collects light from both above and below; the light coming from above is focused by a lens, while that coming from below, by a curved mirror composed of many layers of small reflective plates made of guanine crystals.

A compound eye may consist of thousands of individual photoreceptor units or ommatidia ommatidium , singular. The image perceived is a combination of inputs from the numerous ommatidia individual "eye units" , which are located on a convex surface, thus pointing in slightly different directions.

Compared with simple eyes, compound eyes possess a very large view angle, and can detect fast movement and, in some cases, the polarisation of light.

This can only be countered by increasing lens size and number. Compound eyes fall into two groups: apposition eyes, which form multiple inverted images, and superposition eyes, which form a single erect image.

Apposition eyes are the most common form of eyes and are presumably the ancestral form of compound eyes. They are found in all arthropod groups, although they may have evolved more than once within this phylum.

They are also possessed by Limulus , the horseshoe crab, and there are suggestions that other chelicerates developed their simple eyes by reduction from a compound starting point.

Apposition eyes work by gathering a number of images, one from each eye, and combining them in the brain, with each eye typically contributing a single point of information.

The typical apposition eye has a lens focusing light from one direction on the rhabdom, while light from other directions is absorbed by the dark wall of the ommatidium.

The second type is named the superposition eye. The superposition eye is divided into three types:. The refracting superposition eye has a gap between the lens and the rhabdom, and no side wall.

Each lens takes light at an angle to its axis and reflects it to the same angle on the other side. The result is an image at half the radius of the eye, which is where the tips of the rhabdoms are.

This type of compound eye, for which a minimal size exists below which effective superposition cannot occur, [23] is normally found in nocturnal insects, because it can create images up to times brighter than equivalent apposition eyes, though at the cost of reduced resolution.

Long-bodied decapod crustaceans such as shrimp , prawns , crayfish and lobsters are alone in having reflecting superposition eyes, which also have a transparent gap but use corner mirrors instead of lenses.

This eye type functions by refracting light, then using a parabolic mirror to focus the image; it combines features of superposition and apposition eyes.

Another kind of compound eye, found in males of Order Strepsiptera , employs a series of simple eyes—eyes having one opening that provides light for an entire image-forming retina.

Several of these eyelets together form the strepsipteran compound eye, which is similar to the 'schizochroal' compound eyes of some trilobites.

Because the aperture of an eyelet is larger than the facets of a compound eye, this arrangement allows vision under low light levels.

Good fliers such as flies or honey bees, or prey-catching insects such as praying mantis or dragonflies , have specialised zones of ommatidia organised into a fovea area which gives acute vision.

In the acute zone, the eyes are flattened and the facets larger. The flattening allows more ommatidia to receive light from a spot and therefore higher resolution.

The black spot that can be seen on the compound eyes of such insects, which always seems to look directly at the observer, is called a pseudopupil.

This occurs because the ommatidia which one observes "head-on" along their optical axes absorb the incident light , while those to one side reflect it.

There are some exceptions from the types mentioned above. Some insects have a so-called single lens compound eye, a transitional type which is something between a superposition type of the multi-lens compound eye and the single lens eye found in animals with simple eyes.

Then there is the mysid shrimp, Dioptromysis paucispinosa. The shrimp has an eye of the refracting superposition type, in the rear behind this in each eye there is a single large facet that is three times in diameter the others in the eye and behind this is an enlarged crystalline cone.

This projects an upright image on a specialised retina. The resulting eye is a mixture of a simple eye within a compound eye.

Another version is a compound eye often referred to as "pseudofaceted", as seen in Scutigera. The body of Ophiocoma wendtii , a type of brittle star , is covered with ommatidia, turning its whole skin into a compound eye.

The same is true of many chitons. The tube feet of sea urchins contain photoreceptor proteins, which together act as a compound eye; they lack screening pigments, but can detect the directionality of light by the shadow cast by its opaque body.

The ciliary body is triangular in horizontal section and is coated by a double layer, the ciliary epithelium. The inner layer is transparent and covers the vitreous body, and is continuous from the neural tissue of the retina.

The outer layer is highly pigmented, continuous with the retinal pigment epithelium, and constitutes the cells of the dilator muscle.

The vitreous is the transparent, colourless, gelatinous mass that fills the space between the lens of the eye and the retina lining the back of the eye.

Amazingly, with so little solid matter, it tautly holds the eye. Photoreception is phylogenetically very old, with various theories of phylogenesis.

This is based upon the shared genetic features of all eyes; that is, all modern eyes, varied as they are, have their origins in a proto-eye believed to have evolved some million years ago, [31] [32] [33] and the PAX6 gene is considered a key factor in this.

The majority of the advancements in early eyes are believed to have taken only a few million years to develop, since the first predator to gain true imaging would have touched off an "arms race" [34] among all species that did not flee the photopic environment.

Prey animals and competing predators alike would be at a distinct disadvantage without such capabilities and would be less likely to survive and reproduce.

Hence multiple eye types and subtypes developed in parallel except those of groups, such as the vertebrates, that were only forced into the photopic environment at a late stage.

Eyes in various animals show adaptation to their requirements. For example, the eye of a bird of prey has much greater visual acuity than a human eye , and in some cases can detect ultraviolet radiation.

The different forms of eye in, for example, vertebrates and molluscs are examples of parallel evolution , despite their distant common ancestry.

Phenotypic convergence of the geometry of cephalopod and most vertebrate eyes creates the impression that the vertebrate eye evolved from an imaging cephalopod eye , but this is not the case, as the reversed roles of their respective ciliary and rhabdomeric opsin classes [35] and different lens crystallins show.

The very earliest "eyes", called eye-spots, were simple patches of photoreceptor protein in unicellular animals. In multicellular beings, multicellular eyespots evolved, physically similar to the receptor patches for taste and smell.

These eyespots could only sense ambient brightness: they could distinguish light and dark, but not the direction of the light source.

Through gradual change, the eye-spots of species living in well-lit environments depressed into a shallow "cup" shape.

The ability to slightly discriminate directional brightness was achieved by using the angle at which the light hit certain cells to identify the source.

The pit deepened over time, the opening diminished in size, and the number of photoreceptor cells increased, forming an effective pinhole camera that was capable of dimly distinguishing shapes.

This would have led to a somewhat different evolutionary trajectory for the vertebrate eye than for other animal eyes. The thin overgrowth of transparent cells over the eye's aperture, originally formed to prevent damage to the eyespot, allowed the segregated contents of the eye chamber to specialise into a transparent humour that optimised colour filtering, blocked harmful radiation, improved the eye's refractive index , and allowed functionality outside of water.

The transparent protective cells eventually split into two layers, with circulatory fluid in between that allowed wider viewing angles and greater imaging resolution, and the thickness of the transparent layer gradually increased, in most species with the transparent crystallin protein.

The gap between tissue layers naturally formed a biconvex shape, an optimally ideal structure for a normal refractive index. Independently, a transparent layer and a nontransparent layer split forward from the lens: the cornea and iris.

Separation of the forward layer again formed a humour, the aqueous humour. This increased refractive power and again eased circulatory problems.

Formation of a nontransparent ring allowed more blood vessels, more circulation, and larger eye sizes. Eyes are generally adapted to the environment and life requirements of the organism which bears them.

For instance, the distribution of photoreceptors tends to match the area in which the highest acuity is required, with horizon-scanning organisms, such as those that live on the African plains, having a horizontal line of high-density ganglia, while tree-dwelling creatures which require good all-round vision tend to have a symmetrical distribution of ganglia, with acuity decreasing outwards from the centre.

Of course, for most eye types, it is impossible to diverge from a spherical form, so only the density of optical receptors can be altered.

In organisms with compound eyes, it is the number of ommatidia rather than ganglia that reflects the region of highest data acquisition.

An extension of this concept is that the eyes of predators typically have a zone of very acute vision at their centre, to assist in the identification of prey.

The hyperiid amphipods are deep water animals that feed on organisms above them. Their eyes are almost divided into two, with the upper region thought to be involved in detecting the silhouettes of potential prey—or predators—against the faint light of the sky above.

Accordingly, deeper water hyperiids, where the light against which the silhouettes must be compared is dimmer, have larger "upper-eyes", and may lose the lower portion of their eyes altogether.

Acuity is higher among male organisms that mate in mid-air, as they need to be able to spot and assess potential mates against a very large backdrop.

It is not only the shape of the eye that may be affected by lifestyle. Eyes can be the most visible parts of organisms, and this can act as a pressure on organisms to have more transparent eyes at the cost of function.

Eyes may be mounted on stalks to provide better all-round vision, by lifting them above an organism's carapace; this also allows them to track predators or prey without moving the head.

Visual acuity , or resolving power, is "the ability to distinguish fine detail" and is the property of cone cells.

For example, if each pattern is 1. The highest such number that the eye can resolve as stripes, or distinguish from a grey block, is then the measurement of visual acuity of the eye.

For a human eye with excellent acuity, the maximum theoretical resolution is 50 CPD [42] 1. A rat can resolve only about 1 to 2 CPD.

However, in the compound eye, the resolution is related to the size of individual ommatidia and the distance between neighbouring ommatidia.

Physically these cannot be reduced in size to achieve the acuity seen with single lensed eyes as in mammals. Compound eyes have a much lower acuity than vertebrate eyes.

In primates, geckos, and other organisms, these take the form of cone cells , from which the more sensitive rod cells evolved. Most organisms with colour vision can detect ultraviolet light.

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